Too often taxpayers receive tax surprises at year-end due to actions taken by mutual funds they own. What can add insult to injury is the unsuspecting taxpayer who recently purchases the shares in a mutual fund only to be taxed on their recent investment. How does this happen and what can you do about it?
Towards the end of each year, many mutual funds pay a dividend to the holders on record as of a set date. The fund might also distribute funds deemed as capital gains based upon buying and selling activity that takes place in the fund throughout the year. This can create many problems:
- Taxable paybacks. If you purchase shares in a mutual fund just before a distribution of dividends, part of your purchase includes the dividends that are effectively paid right back to you. Not only will the asset value of your recently purchased shares in the mutual fund go down after the distribution, but you will owe tax on a distribution that is effectively your own money!
- Kiddie tax surprise. Many taxpayers purchase mutual funds in their children's names to take advantage of their lower-tax rates. By keeping their child’s unearned income below $2,100 the tax is low or non-existent. A surprise dividend or capital gain could expose much of this unearned income to higher tax rates.
- The $3,000 loss strategy. Each year, you may take a net of up to $3,000 in investment losses. Your losses can offset high rates of income tax with correct tax planning. But first, these losses need to offset capital gains. If you receive a surprise capital gain, you could be reducing the effectiveness of this tax strategy.
What to do
Here are some ideas to help reduce this mutual fund tax surprise:
- Limit year-end activity. Plan your mutual fund moves with this year-end surprise in mind. Consider reviewing and rebalancing your funds at the beginning of the year to avoid fund purchases just prior to dividend distributions.
- Research your mutual funds. If you wish to avoid a year-end surprise, do a little research on your mutual funds to anticipate what will happen with the fund. Check out the historic trends of your funds to determine which are most likely to issue a surprise Form 1099 DIV or Form 1099 B (capital gain/loss).
- Use the knowledge to your benefit. If you like a fund and it has a practice of creating taxable events each year, consider investing in these funds within a retirement account. That way the tax implications can be part of your retirement planning.
No one likes a surprise at tax time. The best course of action is to navigate the options that are best for you.